Skip Upper Bar
Upper Bar
Skip Banners
Banners
Candida
Skip Banners
Banners
NanoCHIP
Skip Banners
Banners
Parasites
Skip Banners
Banners
Chlamydia
Skip Banners
Banners
Mycoplasma
Skip Banners
Banners
B.pertussis
Skip Search
Search
Skip Quick Links
Quick Links
Skip Right Bar
Right Bar
Skip Banners
Banners

Chlamydia

Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria, which parasitize the host cell for energy. The Chlamydia have cell walls with inner and outer membranes, similar to those of other Gram-negative bacteria, replicate by binary fission, contain DNA, RNA and ribosomes, and synthesize some proteins (also enzymes). However, they differ from most true bacteria in that they have no peptidoglycan in their cell wall and lack the ability to produce their own adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The Chlamydial life cycle is unique and is divided into two distinct phases: Elementary bodies (EBs) and Raticulate bodies (RBs). Chlamydia is composed of four species: C.trachomatis, C.pneumoniae (TWAR), C.psittaci and C.pecorum.

 

C. trachomatis includes 15 serotypes sharing immunogenic epitopes at various degrees. C.trachomatis is a major sexually transmitted disease and is associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and epididymitis in men, cervicitis, urethritis and pelvic inflammatory disease in women, Reiter's syndrome in HLA-B27 haplotype individuals and neonatal conjunctivitis and pneumonia in the newborn.

 

C. pneumoniae is an important respiratory pathogen in humans and causes up to 10% of community-acquired pneumonia cases. It has been associated with acute respiratory diseases, pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis, pharyngitis, acute chest syndrome of sickle cell disease, coronary heart disease, and Guillain-Barre syndrome.

 

C.psittaci infects a diverse range of host species from molluscs to birds to mammals and also causes severe pneumonia.

 

Diagnosis

Serological testing is routinely used for diagnosing chlamydial infections. They serve as a non-invasive tool in identification of both distal and chronic chlamydial infections, where direct detection methods are rarely efficient. Furthermore, the presence of certain antibody types may also indicate the state of the disease. The primary chlamydial infection is characterized by a predominant IgM response within 2 to 4 weeks and a delayed IgG and IgA response within 6 to 8 weeks. After acute C. pneumoniae infection, IgM antibodies are usually lost within 2 to 6 months, IgG antibody titers rise and usually decrease slowly; whereas IgA antibodies tend to disappear rapidly. Chlamydial re-infections are characterized by absence of IgM response and prompt IgG and IgA responses. IgA antibodies have been shown to be a reliable immunological marker of primary, chronic and recurrent infections. These antibodies usually decline rapidly to baseline levels following treatment and eradication of the chlamydial infection. The persistence of elevated IgA antibody titers is generally considered as a sign of chronic infection. In a study conducted on elderly patients with respiratory infections it was estimated that one fifth of C. pneumoniae cases would have been missed without an IgA determination. IgG antibodies persist for long periods and decline very slowly. Therefore, the presence of IgG antibodies is mainly indicative of a chlamydial infection at an undetermined time. However, a four-fold rise in IgG or high levels of IgG antibodies may indicate an on-going chronic or systemic infection.

 

 

 ELISA

 Immunofluorescence

Rapid 

Chlamydia

SeroELISA Chlamydia IgG, IgA, IgM

SeroFIA™ IgG, IgA, IgM

 

QuickStripe™

Chlamydia Ag

 

C.trachomatis

SeroCT™ IgG, IgA

SeroCT™ RT IgG, IgA

SeroFIA™ C.trachomatis
C.pneumoniae

 

SeroCP™ Quant IgG, IgA

SeroCP™ IgG, IgA, IgM

SeroCP™ RT IgG, IgA, IgM

SeroFIA™ C.pneumoniae
C. psittaci

 

SeroFIA™ C. psittaci

 

PrintTell a friend
Jump to page content